20. An experimenter tests older and younger adults’ memory for pictures and words. First (s)he presents the participants with a study list consisting of both pictures and words. Immediately after the list is presented, participants are asked to recall in any order as many of the list items as possible. Which of the following describes an interaction?a.Older adults memory for pictures is much greater than for words. Younger adults show the picture advantage but to a lesser degree.b.Older adults overall memory performance is worse than younger adults, but both groups show an equivalent advantage for pictures over words.c.Older adults memory performance is more variable than younger adults.d.Younger adults’ memory is more capricious than older adults21. One important principle advocated by the APA is the right of informed consent, which states that the experimenter has a clear obligation toa.obtain approval from a committee that judges the ethics of the proposed research before performing an experiment involving human participants.b.balance the potential worth of the research against the potential harm to the participants prior to doing the experiment.c.explain to the participants all salient features of the research before the experiment is done so the participants have the opportunity to decline to participate.d.inform the participants of the results of the research prior to publication of a journal article.13.At a 13.222. At a horse race, the finishing positions are determined by how fast each horse ran the race. Thus, the first finishing horse ran the fastest, the second finishing horse ran the second fastest, and so on. These finishing position numbers form a(n) __________ scale.a.intervalb.ratioc.ordinald.nominal14. 23. In an experiment, confounding occurs whena.more than one independent variable is manipulated.b.an uncontrolled variable covaries with an independent variable.c.an interaction occurs between two independent variables.d.an interaction occurs between three or more independent variables.26. A psychologist who is providing therapy for a person should not develop a close friendship with the client because such dual relationships can compromise the success of the therapy. This problem relates to which General Ethical Principle of the American Psy-chological Association?A) beneficence and nonmaleficenceB) respect for people’s rights and dignityC) justiceD) fidelity and responsibility27. If an educator wanted to see if the number of absences from class during a semester was associated with students’ final grades, that researcher would useA) observational research.B) correlational research.C) experimental researchD) longitudinal research.28.Researchers have discovered that children experiencing Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) show improvements if they attend classes on involving behavioral and social skills, compared to a group of ADHD children who did not attend the classes. The group of children who attended the classes constitute theA) experimental group.B) independent group.C) control group.D) placebo group.29. The logic of an experiment is that when one group that experiences an experimental manipulation and another group does not, any differences in subsequent behavior are due to the independent variable. This conclusion is true whenA) both groups are comparable at the beginning of the study.B) the control group and the placebo group experience the same manipulation.C) the study is double-blind, but not single blind.D) demand characteristics are present in both groups.30. Researchers have difficulty studying how race and culture affect behavior becauseA) many research participants do not want to identify with specific racial or cultural groups.B) people in different groups do not show any consistent differences.C) the concepts of race and ethnicity are unclear and often defined differently by different people.D) group differences across cultures are more likely to be present than individual differ-ences across differences.
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