Discuss facilitating groups in health promotion Strategies and tactics.

Facilitating Groups*

Health Promotion Strategies & Tactics (COH430)

National University

* Bensley, R.J., & Brookins-Fisher, J. (2009). Community health education methods. Third edition. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.

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Chapter 11 Learning Objectives

1. Summarize steps for effective group facilitation.

2. Discuss and explain the tips and techniques for effective group facilitation.

3. Explain challenges to group facilitation.

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Definition of facilitation

  • Actions that “promote, aid, simplify, or make a task easy”

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Role of Health educators

  • Promote group communication and collaboration
  • Aid participants in making contributions to the community
  • Simplify tasks
  • Promote group process

Facilitating Groups

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Group Facilitation

  • Requires
  • Leadership
  • Patience
  • Skills and abilities
  • Insights

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Types of Groups

  • Communication and decision making group
  • Staff groups, standing committees, subcommittees, and committee-of-the-whole
  • Task-specific group
  • Ad-hoc committee, task force, commission, coalitions
  • Oversight and advisory group
  • Oversight, partner and advisory groups, planning councils, steering committees, commissions

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Communication and decision making groups

  • Staff groups
  • Enhance communication and decision making
  • Staff meetings/department meetings/committee meetings
  • Standing committees
  • Overall work and productivity of organization effort
  • Resource development/outreach and recruitment/evaluation

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Communication and decision making group

  • Sub committees
  • Smaller groups
  • Formed from members of an existing committee
  • Standing committee (outreach and recruitment) has three different subcommittees (youth recruitment/rural outreach & publicity)
  • Committee-of-the-whole
  • Members of a larger group to address issues
  • May or may not be on the agenda

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Task–Specific Groups

  • Ad-hoc committee
  • Shortest group life and narrowest charge
  • Specific purpose and predefined deadline
  • Give issues a “quick study”
  • Explore options
  • Formulate recommendations for a larger body
  • Ad Hoc Committee

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Task–Specific Groups

  • Task force
  • Larger group formed for a slightly longer time
  • Complete a specific task to do the “work”
  • Arranging for volunteers at a blood drive
  • Developing proposals for a profession–wide accreditation system
  • Womens Health Task Force

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Task–Specific Groups

  • Coalition
  • Large group formed from other groups
  • Specific purpose
  • Sharing information, raising awareness
  • Producing an event or advocating for an issue
  • Asthma Coalition

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Oversight and Advisory Group

  • Oversight, partner, and advisory groups
  • Enable health educators to obtain direction and guidance
  • From people who understand the key issues
  • Dynamics of a community-based program or initiative

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Commission

Larger and more formal groups

Appointed by an organization or government leader

Charged with making recommendations to the leadership

On a specific issue or problem

Commission to Build a Healthier America

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Oversight and Advisory Group

  • Oversight, partner, and advisory groups
  • Discuss the implementation of a public act
  • In a local situation
  • Might include local employers
  • Might include experts in the program content areas
  • CDPH Advisory Group

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Oversight and Advisory Group

  • Planning council – Often created by government
  • Broad participation
  • Program priorities and resource allocation
  • NY HIV Planning Council

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Oversight and Advisory Group

  • Steering committee
  • Oversee implementation of programs or initiatives
  • Involved in early stages of a program
  • Standing committees to oversee program operation
  • NACo Health Steering Committee

Facilitating Groups

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Plan the meeting
  • Develop an agenda
  • Arrange for minutes
  • Attend to details

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Plan the meeting
  • What is the purpose of the meeting?
  • Who should attend?
  • Where should the meeting take place?
  • When should the meeting be held and how long should it last?

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Plan the meeting
  • Where does this meeting fit in the ongoing work of the group?
  • Sometimes it is not appropriate to meet when answering the above questions.

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Develop an Agenda
  • Establishes order of events
  • Provides a road map for the facilitator
  • While the meeting is in progress
  • Limits and focuses discussions
  • So that crucial action items are dealt with

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Arrange for minutes
  • An impartial, written record of what happened
  • Several styles include
  • Formal (decision-making groups)
  • Less formal
  • Action-only minutes

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Attend to all the details
  • Setting: Attractive, comfortable, and appropriate setting
  • Encourages attendance and invites participation

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Attend to all the details
  • Name tags: Can impact participants interaction
  • Listing degrees
  • May positively establish member credentials
  • Could create imbalance of prestige and presumed authority

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Attend to all the details
  • Name tags: Can impact participants interaction
  • Emphasizing first names
  • May facilitate conversation among members
  • Could appear uncomfortable/disrespectful
  • Preprinted name tags may not provide inclusion

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Attend to all the details
  • Meeting tone: The beginning sets the tone for the remainder of the meeting.
  • Formal, informal, warm, inviting, serious, urgent, focused, or brainstorming
  • Closure: Ending on time is important to all participants

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Attend to all the details
  • Other Considerations
  • Ensure meeting is accessible to all participants
  • Set and test audiovisual equipment in advance
  • Using microphones if needed
  • Provide meeting packets and handouts

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Steps for Effective Group Facilitation

  • Attend to all the details
  • Other Considerations
  • Provide refreshments
  • Take breaks
  • Provide tables for additional materials
  • Attend to lighting, noise, and temperature

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Tips and Techniques

  • Genuine belief in the power of groups
  • Genuine interest in others
  • An attitude of inquiry
  • Exhibit an open and respectful interaction style
  • Maintain a commitment to capacity development

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Tips and Techniques

  • Have a sense of humor
  • Establish a climate of inclusion
  • Keep discussions on track
  • Remain neutral
  • Evaluate the meeting

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Overcoming Challenges

  • Encourage participation
  • Maintain attendance
  • Resolve conflict
  • Avoid burnout
  • Minimize technology disruptions
  • Address conflicts

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Overcoming Challenges

  • Encourage participation
  • Establish a process
  • Honors differences and encourages communication
  • Monitoring the emerging dynamics
  • Encourage all members to participate
  • Manner in which they are most comfortable

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Overcoming Challenges

  • Encourage participation
  • Establish full participation
  • As an explicit goal when opening the meeting
  • Include a round of introductions or a brief icebreaker
  • At the beginning of the meeting.

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Overcoming Challenges

  • Encourage participation
  • List “full participation” as a criterion
  • In the meeting evaluation
  • Periodically remind the group of the importance of full participation
  • Invite individuals who have not spoken or commented
  • To share their perspectives

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Overcoming Challenges

  • Encourage participation
  • Try small group discussions for 5–10 minutes
  • In the middle of larger discussions
  • Consider co-facilitating
  • Check in with participants privately

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Overcoming Challenges

  • Encourage participation
  • Offer to facilitate or coordinate training
  • On multicultural communication
  • Report on “full participation” evaluation results
  • As a way of stimulating discussions

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Overcoming Challenges

  • Maintain attendance
  • Reminder notices in advance
  • Convenient meeting time and location for participants
  • Personal phone calls or email contact
  • To ensure participants feel welcomed

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Overcoming Challenges

  • Maintain attendance
  • Survey participants to gather opinions and recommendations
  • Review meeting procedures
  • Ensure participants have meaningful roles
  • Do not take attendance numbers personally

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Overcoming Challenges

  • Resolve conflict
  • Establish ground rules and hold firm to them
  • Explore conflicts
  • Check in with individuals
  • Have a plan to manage conflict
  • Use good judgment

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Overcoming Challenges

  • Avoid burnout
  • Try not to rush
  • Remember why one does this kind of work
  • Talk with others
  • Seek out experts
  • Take care of yourself

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Characteristics of Effective Group Meetings

  • Careful time management
  • Facilitator and members are mutually sensitive
  • Goals and objectives are clearly defined
  • Meeting interruptions
  • Not allowed
  • Held to a minimum

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Characteristics of Effective Group Meetings

  • Facilitator is well prepared
  • Atmosphere is engaging
  • Members are qualified and validated
  • Accurate minutes/recordings
  • Group decisions are used

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Expected Outcomes

  • Meets common goal
  • Group satisfaction
  • Remember and attend to common purpose
  • Planning, deliberation, and evaluating group efforts

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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Summary

  • Facilitation is a skill
  • Requires communication and decision making processes
  • Facilitators are
  • Stewards individual hopes
  • Agents of community change

Facilitating Groups

Information Source: ©2008 Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC (www.jbpub.com)

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