Equillibrium Lab

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Can you refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would produce increased amounts of products at equilibrium? In this investigation, you will observe the changes that result when you add more of, or take away some of, one of the components of the equilibrium and determine if there are trends in the behavior of equilibrium systems.

Equilibrium Lab—Text Version

Introduction

In this experiment, you will investigate how increasing or decreasing the concentration of one component of an equilibrium system affects the position of equilibrium.

You will observe color changes that indicate how concentrations change. You will also examine graphs that depict those changes in concentration as the system adjusts to the stress and reaches a new equilibrium position.

You will investigate an equilibrium system between two cobalt complex ions.

Co(H2O)62+ + 4Cl ⇌ CoCl42– + 6H2O.

In aqueous solution, Co(H2O)62+ is pink, CoCl42– is blue, and Cl and H2O are colorless. The distinctive colors of the two cobalt (II) species in solution provide a visual comparison of concentrations. This allows you to observe how the concentrations of the two cobalt complex ions compare within the system.

Select each control test tube to compare the concentrations of reactants and products.

Text that appears when test tube A is selected: When there is significantly more Co(H2O)62+ than CoCl42– in the test tube, the solution is pink, as in control test tube A.

Text that appears when test tube B is selected: When the amounts of Co(H2O)62+ and CoCl42– are approximately equal in the test tube, the solution is purple, as in control test tube B.

Text that appears when test tube C is selected: When there is significantly more CoCl42– than Co(H2O)62+ in the test tube, the solution is blue, as in in control test tube C.

These test tubes each contain the same solution, at an equilibrium position with approximately equal concentrations of Co(H2O)62+ and CoCl42–.

With each addition, you will be either increasing the amount of one species within the equilibrium or decreasing the amount (due to a secondary reaction). Each stress may cause a change in the rate of the forward or reverse reaction until a new equilibrium is reached.

Record your observations carefully.

Procedure

Trial One: Adding HCl to solution with approximately equal concentrations of CoCl42– and Co(H2O)62+

Add a solution of HCl to test tube 1 and stir with a clean, dry stirring rod. This increases the amount of Cl in the test tube.

Record your observations of the stress, color change, and graph.

Trial Two: Adding AgNO3 to solution with higher concentration of CoCl42– than Co(H2O)62+

Take test tube 1 again, and add a solution of AgNO3. Stir with a clean, dry stirring rod. The added Ag+ ions react with Cl to form the insoluble precipitate AgCl.

Record your observations of the stress, color change, and graph.

Trial Three: Adding H2O to solution with approximately equal concentrations of CoCl42– and Co(H2O)62+

Add liquid H2O to test tube 2 and stir with a clean, dry stirring rod.

Record your observations of the stress, color change, and graph.

Trial Four: Adding NaCl to solution with approximately equal concentrations of CoCl42– and Co(H2O)62+

Add NaCl salt to test tube 3 and stir with a clean, dry stirring rod. Stirring will cause the NaCl to dissolve and dissociate in the solution.

Record your observations of the stress, color change, and graph.

Trial Five: Adding H2O to solution with higher concentration of CoCl42– than Co(H2O)62+

Now that all the NaCl has dissolved in test tube 3, add liquid H2O. Then stir with a clean, dry stirring rod.

Record your observations of the stress, color change, and graph.

Trial Six: Adding CaCl2 to solution with higher concentration of Co(H2O)62+ than CoCl42–

Now, take the solution in test tube 2 and add solid CaCl2 salt.

Record your observations of the stress and color change. There is no graph for this trial.

You’ve completed this lab investigation. Be sure you have all the observations recorded.

FILL OUT LAB REPORT.

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