In your own words, describe how frames might be used in current society (personal experiences may provide valuable references).

I don’t know how to handle this English question and need guidance.

The question that needs to be answered with 300-400 words.

Not seeing color (colorblindness) is often used to suggest that one does not make any judgments based on race (define by skin color). However, Bonilla-Silva’s research indicates that approaches that contain racial biases/judgments are much more subtle in current society. Bonilla-Silva suggests that four frames are used to explain that racism may not be important: Abstract Liberalism, Naturalization, Cultural racism, minimization of racism. Review the definition of theses frames.

In your own words, describe how the frames might be used in current society (personal experiences may provide valuable references).

Must use following terms in the text and the terms need to be in bold letters.

abstract liberalism, naturalization, cultural racism, minimization of racism, linguistic manners, rhetorical strategies, disclaimer, projection, diminutives, rhetorical incoherence, SNAF, culture of poverty, culture, panethnic identity, educational attainment.

NOTE: Not all of the terms need to be used just a few.

Below is an overview of the above terms.

Four central frames of Color-Blind Racism:

  • Abstract liberalism
  • Naturalization’
  • Cultural racism
  • Minimization of racism

Abstract Liberalism most important as a foundational base for ‘new racism’… must understand ‘liberalism’

Tenants of liberalism

  • Individualism’
  • Universalism’
  • Egalitarianism
  • Melorialism (idea that people and institutions can be improved)

Often set in a Eurocentric framework of humanity (only Europeans are human)…modernity, liberalism, and racial exclusion developed together…however, liberalism has also been responsible for social change and reform (can be progressive)

The four frames: Used in combination rather than a single frame

“..abstract liberalism involves using ideas associated with political liberalism (e.g. “equal opportunity”, the idea that force should not be used to achieve social policy) and economic liberalism (e.g. choice, individualism) in an abstract manner to explain racial matters”

  • laissez-faire racism” or “competitive racism” …. use in arguments against Affirmative action
  • Often used as an argument against assistance (welfare)
  • Relies on Jeffersonian idea “the cream rises to the top” or meritocracy (reward by merit)
  • Liberalism suggests little or no government interference (invisible hand of the market) …balance or equilibrium is usually the outcome
  • Individualism…should not look at groups but individuals…individuals have a right to choose their attitudes and behaviors

Naturalization is a frame that allows whites to explain away racial phenomena by suggesting they are natural occurrences”

  • Least used frame (tends to remind one of biological explanations)
  • Uses ‘natural’ explanations…likes attract likes
  • Very few natural occurrences in society
  • We are generally socialized into our behaviors

“Cultural racism is a frame that relies on culturally based arguments such as “Mexicans do not put much emphasis on education” or “blacks have too many babies” to explain the standing of minorities in society.”

  • Tend to use cultural explanations for racial differences
  • Assumes culture is a fixed rather than fluid concept
  • Example “culture of poverty” used for the underclass
  • Often used in conjunction with minimization
  • “Just the way people are” explanation…part of their cultural traits i.e. laziness, frugality
  • Sometimes harsh/direct criticism, other times compassionate/gentle approach

“Minimization of racism is a frame that suggests discrimination is no longer a central factor affecting minorities’ life chances (“It’s better now than in the past’ or “There is discrimination, but there are plenty of jobs out there”)

  • William Julius Wilson The Declining Significance of Race (1978) suggest class standing more important than race
  • Discrimination not seen as a problem even though it may occur
  • Belief that institutional racism has declined
  • Race is minimized and seen only as an excuse

These frames are often used in combination to explain that minorities are no longer subjected to the racism of the past and that racism is no longer an issue in American society

Below is an example of what a fellow classmate posted. Myself as an African American male I have had similiar things happen to me.

In my own words, the frames may be used in current society are cultural racism. I have experienced individuals criticize my culture based on what the rest of my community may have done. For example, since I am a black woman, individuals automatically think that I am going to have a child by the time I am twenty-five or younger. Even when I was in school, individuals would assume my mom was a single mom who had children without marriage. In reality, my mom was married when she had both children. So having people believing that these actions would be a part of my life based on what others may have done, they think the whole community may have that same outcome.

Abstract liberalism is each person has the same chance of opportunity, and everyone is equal, but I do not see it. When it comes to Abstract liberalism, I remember being in Home Ec classes, and the teacher would talk about applying for jobs and what to wear and how to appear to the employer. I learned about these work opportunities, but as I got older and I saw the reality of our society, I realized that because of the color of my skin, I might not get the job. I could have all the credentials and certifications, but I may not get the occupation.

I think that the minimization of racism comes close to color blindness more. It just to set aside the reality of discrimination toward people of color. I have seen it with my own two eyes, where my grandmother lives. The streets need to be completed. They will work on the suburban side of the town, but they rarely come to the “black side” of the city, where it needs work as well.

Naturalization in our society is that it tries to make excuses for racial injustices. Assuming that all people of color want to be around each other because they tend to want to be close or want to be around people who are like them, is no excuse for segregation or any other racial factor.


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