LabAssignment 11: Properties of WavesInstructor’s OverviewIf you think carefully about it, we areimmersed in waves. The fact that you canturn on a radio and listen to music or news, or receive a cell phone call isevidence of the transmission and reception of waves. These two examples involve transverseelectromagnetic waves. Having aconversation with a family member, friend, or colleague is made possible bylongitudinal waves of sound. Wavestransmit energy and demonstrate interesting properties such as superposition(constructive/destructive interference) and resonance. We’ll explore many of the properties of wavesin this final lab of Physics I.This activity is based on Labs 21 and 24of the eScience Lab kit.Our lab consists of three maincomponents. These components aredescribed in detail in the eScience manual. Here is a quick overview:eScience Lab21 Experiment 1: In thefirst part of the lab, you will use a Slinky® to create andvisualize transverse and longitudinal waves. You’ll experiment with wave reflection,superposition, and resonance.eScience Lab21 Experiment 2: In thesecond part of the lab, you will create your own wave source using a corkand a tub of water. Thisexperimental setup allows you to explore the Doppler effect.eScience Lab24 Experiment 2:In the finalpart of the lab you will explore the concepts of pitch and resonance byexperimenting with water-filled bottles.Take detailednotes as you perform the experiment and fill out the sections below. This document serves as your lab report. Please include detailed descriptions of yourexperimental methods and observations.Experiment Tips: · Ingeneral, read the lab questions below before running the experiments. This allows you to keep an eye out forspecific things as you run the experiments.· Makesure to run the Slinky® experiments on a hard floor. Carpeted floors dampen the wave behavior andmake the experiments more ambiguous.· Forthe Doppler effect experiment, it is easier to see the wave behavior with alarger tub of water. Wave reflectionfrom the sides of small tubs make the observations more challenging.· Narrowneck glass bottles work well for the sound experiments in eScience Lab 24.Date: Student: AbstractBackgroundObjectiveHypothesisIntroductionMaterial and MethodsResultseScience Lab 21 Experiment 1: Slinky®Based on yourresults from the Slinky® experiments, please answer the followingquestions:1. What happened when the transverse wavesreached your partner’s end? Did the reflected wave stay on the same side as theone you sent? Draw a diagram showing the incoming and reflected waves.2. Did the waves go any faster or slower whenyou tried a variety of amplitudes? Explain how this agrees or disagrees withthe equation for a transverse wave’s velocity.3. What did you notice about the speed of thelongitudinal waves compared to the transverse waves?4. Explain what happened when you and yourpartner both sent waves on the same side. What kind of interference took place?5. What happened when waves on opposite sidespassed each other?6. How did shortening the length of thespring affect the resonant frequencies? How does this confirm the relationshipv = λ f when velocity is constant? (Hint: a shorter spring length means smallerwavelengths for each standing wave).7. Using this knowledge, explain how musicalinstruments create higher and lower tones. Use a string instrument as anexample.eScience Lab 21 Experiment 2: Doppler EffectBased on yourresults from the cork and water experiment, please answer the followingquestions:1. Draw a picture of a moving source and the wavessurrounding it according to what you observed in this experiment. How does thespacing of the wavefronts in front of the source compare to those behind it?2. Imagine a small observer is positioned in front ofcork in your picture above. As the cork approaches, the observer measures thewavelength of the waves passing by. How does this wavelength compare to thatmeasured from behind the source?3. Imagine that this same observer measures the frequencyof the waves instead of wavelength. How does the frequency measured in front ofthe source appear to the observer compared to the frequency measured frombehind?4. How do these results help explain why a car’s enginesounds different as the car approaches you compared with after it passes?5. The Doppler effect is present in light waves as well.As you will learn in Physics II, redlight has a lower frequency than blue light. Based on your observations in thisexperiment, what can you speculate about the motion of a distant star thatappears “red‐shifted” to astrophysicists? (The light appears morered than expected.)eScience Lab 24 Experiment 2: Pitch and ResonanceBased on yourresults from water bottle experiments, please answer the following questions:1. Did the pitch of the noise made bystriking the bottle get higher or lower as you filled the bottle with water?2. Did the pitch made by blowing across thetop of the bottle go up or down as you filled the bottle?3. Why is there a difference between thesetwo noises? In your answer, comment on the source of the noise in each case (i.e.What is vibrating?).4. Using what you know about harmonics andresonance, explain how different pitches are created when you blow across thebottle opening with different liquid levels.5. What wave property allowed you to hearnoise through your bottle in step 2 of Procedure 2, and how does the soundtransmit from one bottle to the other? Did the pitch sound the same as the onemade by your partner?ConclusionsReferences
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