no specific question, please respond to the 4 discussion posts as directed (75 words each)

I’m trying to study for my Health & Medical course and I need some help to understand this question.

HI253 Medical Coding I

INSTRUCTIONS: Respond to all posts; response to classmates should be thoughtful and advance the discussion, response should make and/or frequent informed references to unit material or scientific literature, follow APA style if resources are used, 75 word minimum in response per post


In the medical field we are constantly running into issues due to incorrect training, not understanding what needs to be done, go-live issues, mistakes and/or misreading/misinterpreting information. One personal encounter I have come across is regarding Midlines. At the facility I work for, we have always charged a Midline (CPT 36410) if placed by a PICC nurse and charged for the cath supplies using “if” documented. Recently, we found out we should not be doing any charging for midlines if it was not placed by a physician or “being monitored by a physician”. I am not exactly when the rules changed but we were unaware of this until education was provided due to an audit that occurred. Going forward, any of the coding CMS guidelines that have changed that we need to be made aware of, our boss has taken the imitative to portray the CMS guidelines to us along with forward any important emails that impact coding. We hope that this will avoid any potential issues such as this one.

When you query a physician, it is so you can get the correct information or clarification in order to appropriately code the account. Sometimes documentation can be unfinished, unclear or you might have questions. Both verbal or written querys are acceptable when questioning the documentation.

~Krystle Carey~


One ethical dilemma related to fraud or errors in medical coding is when coders make the decision to code information that is not there in order to bill a patient more than documented. A coder could falsify information and put incorrect codes in order to make the bill higher and make the company more money. Not only is this highly unethical but also illegal and could result in the loss of your job, certificate and even possible jail time. Based on Harman’s ethical decision-making matrix we can prevent this issue in future coding practices by closely monitoring documentation, and having random audits in order to make sure that all codes are being put in properly and things are being done correctly. Queries are very important when it comes to clinical documentation, a coder can request more information from a physician by sending in a query so that they can better understand the diagnosis and they can code the correct information to the best of their ability. There are a lot of precautions taken now in order to ensure that coders and companies are doing their jobs properly and there are little to no fraudulent coding.

~Ashleigh Cilluffa~

SC121: Human Anatomy and Physiology

INSTRUCTIONS: Respond to all posts; response to classmates should be thoughtful and advance the discussion, response should make and/or frequent informed references to unit material or scientific literature, follow APA style if resources are used, 75 word minimum in response per post


More and more we are see brightly colored skin art know as a tattoo appear on more and more people. Have you ever wondered how that beautiful color stays within the skin? Even how the ink causes the body to react? When a tattoo needle enters the skin it goes through the epidermis right into the underlying dermis leaving the pigment behind. Every time the needle penetrates, it causes a wound I the skin and alerts the body to being the inflammatory process. The immune system sends out cells to repair the site, these very cells are the reason tattoos are permanent. Macrophages “eat” the ink trying to clean it up. As the macrophages travel through the blood vessels, some of them re carried back, with a belly full of the ink, into the lymph nodes while others remain in the dermis. Since there is no way for the cells to dissolve and dispose of the pigment, it remains in the dermis being visible through the skin. (Aguirre, D. (2019, April 03).)

What happens though when it goes wrong and you are not happy with what you got? Well then there is laser removal. With laser removal of tattoos, the laser uses a high-intensity light beam pulses to absorb the pigment colors. With black pigment being the easiest to remove because it absorbs all laser wavelengths. Color pigment removal involves selecting the right laser based on the color. As the tattoo ink particles absorb the energy, they heat up and then shatter into tiny fragments. The body’s immune system then flushes the particles away from the location in the following weeks after treatment. This in turn lightens the appearance of the tattoo. Depending on the color and how the particles react it may take many sessions in order to completely remove. Most tattoos require 5-10 treatments in order to full remove. The reason for this is the pigment is settled into multiple layers of the dermis with shallow ones being the first to be treated then once the body flushes them away the layer beneath maybe reached with the laser. “The process of flushing away the ink involves immune system phagocytic cells gradually moving the ink particles to the lymph nodes, where the pigments remain. Because the body can only flush away the ink at a certain speed, it’s beneficial to wait as long as possible between treatments to see maximum fading from each session. Also, the waiting period allows any scabs or blisters to heal, minimizing the possibility of over-treating the area and causing unwanted side effects.” (How Tattoo Removal Works:)

I really enjoyed this topic because tattoos are one of my passions. What can I say I am addicted to getting them. They are literally the best form of therapy I have ever run across. As far as removing them, I do have tattoos I regret getting but instead of removing I decided to cover them up with something I truly love and wanted to get. I feel tattooing is a way to become a walking piece of art and no one tattooed body is the same. I enjoy my tattoos and the feeling of confidence I get once they are on me.

~Amanda Lovell~


For this discussion I chose fingerprints. Epidermal ridges are found on the fingers, soles, palms, and toes of a human (Tortora & Derrickson, 2017). To me the epidermal ridges look like lines making a swirl pattern that loop out from the center of the fingertip.

Epidermal ridges increase the surface area of the hands and feet allowing for more friction which increases grip. Also, the epidermal ridges increase the bond between the dermis and the epidermis in areas that are considered regions of high mechanical stress (Tortora & Derrickson, 2017). Lastly, epidermal ridges enhance the touch sensitivity. The corpuscles or nerve endings in the skin can detect the different textures of things (PHYSORG, 2003 – 2020).

There are sweat pores at the tops of epidermal ridges, and when someone touches something, the sweat comes off and a fingerprint is left behind. Fingerprints are individual to each person and can be used as a means of identification (Tortora & Derrickson, 2017). Fingerprints can change or be affected by things such as scars, cuts, abrasions, peeling and sloughing of skin, and they wear out as people age. If your fingerprint changes it may affect the quality of the fingerprint you leave, which for the average person, that might affect the biometric for unlocking their phones and accessing apps locked with their fingerprint. Since each fingerprint is unique to the individual, I don’t see there being legal implications for a changing fingerprint unless it somehow changed to match someone who is committing crimes. However, it could be assumed that the person intentionally altered their fingerprint, and in that case, they would look guilty (FindLaw, 2020).

People do try to remove or change their fingerprints by many different means, for example, burning them on the stove, putting the finger tips in acid, cutting them with a razor, rubbing them off, and even plastic surgery (ABC News, 2010). I would never do this, even if I was trying to escape criminal charges or avoid being caught. That sounds horribly painful, and I am sure if I did something illegal that was being investigated I would be caught by DNA evidence. I did a 23andMe genetic testing and analysis, so I’m in the system.



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