I’m studying for my Social Science class and need an explanation.
chapter 5 please respond to meghan with 190 words please make sure your response includes 2 citations, and reference
Topic 1: Parents/Caregivers collaboration.
Early care and education is a huge issue that parents face when trying to decide which setting will provide the best outcome for their child and also work within the families schedule. The age of the child also plays into the selection of the child-care setting. According to FIFCFS, (2013) information collected in 2011, showed that about 49% of 0-4 year old children were cared for by a relative while the mother was working. Center-based options such as preschools, nursery schools, Head start, and day care were used by 24% of families. Home-based care given by a babysitter, nanny or family day-care was used by approximately 13 % of working mothers (as cited in Berns, 2016, p.169). Whichever setting that is chosen by the parent must secure quality care for their child. Berns (2016) stated, “ Because all care for children has an impact on their socialization or education” (p.171). Early care and education must have many components that provide the best quality care for the child. According to Berns (2016), the components of a quality family care include physical, social, and cognitive skills development, and emotional objectives according to the age of the child. Ruopp, Travers, Glantz & Coelen ( 1979)in the National Day- Care study that there were three predictors of positive dynamics within the classroom and the outcome of the child. Class size of the group of children and the ratios of caregivers to children. Also important is if the caregiver has received training in child development or early childhood education ( as citied in Berns, 2016, p.171). Adjusting from parental care to that of a caregiver can be stressful for both the child and the parent. Lamb and Ahnert ( 2006) states, “ Parent sensitivity is a key determinant of a child’s adjustment to non- parental child care” ( as citied in Berns, 2016, p.179). Lamb and Ahnet (2006) also discussed that when choosing a care facility you should look for accreditation, then spend time with your child and the caregiver until the child can make a smooth transition and find a comfort level. Lastly, the parent needs to be involved with their child’s caregiver communicating regularly ( as citied in Berns, 2016, p.179).
Topic 2: Curriculum models.
Cognitively Oriented programs are driven by how the child learns in their environment. Berns (2016), wrote that , “ Paget believed that humans adapt mentally to their environments through their interactions or experiences with people, objects, and events ( p.188). The teacher helps the student explore and learn by providing activities the children can build there experiences on. One advantage to this type of learning is as Hohmann & Weikart, (1995), discussed is that a child learns to problem solve, plan, and set goals for themselves. The Child finds that not everything works out as they had planned and must find a new alternative to what their working on ( as citied in Berns, 2016, p.189). Another advantage is that the child learns to be self starters, independent, and goal oriented. This program also has some draw backs Berns (2016), stated, “ Children are not pushed to achieve at another developmental level. They also are not taught facts per se; they learn to think for themselves” (p.189). Without learning basic facts according to their age they may lag behind with others academically. A second draw back is that they may also have some social issues due to the self regulated program. Involvement with peers is not pushed in this curriculum.
The Montessori Curriculum is very interesting to many families because according to Miller & Dyer,(1975) the child learns and educates themselves. By observing the children’s behavior to determine when they are sensitive to learning and then prepare a optimum learning environment for the child. One advantage to this type of learning is that they develop skills needed in their daily lives. It also helps the child in sensory and academic developments ( as citied in Berns, 2016, p. 191). A disadvantage to Montessori school is cost, according to Meinke ( 2019), these programs are tuition based, private schools that can be to expensive for lower income families to afford. Also, another problem is the lack of structure that may result in some learning delays.
Direct Instruction curriculum is a program that is used in many preschools today. B.F Skinner (1968) discussed an advantage to this curriculum in that it is teacher directed. The children receives feedback in their responses, and incorrect answers require the child to repeat the task so the correct learned procedure is reinforced (as citied in Berns, 2016, p. 190). Another advantage to low- income families is that the program offers as Berns (2016) discussed intense instruction in a very structured and detailed way that enables children that are behind in language development to catch up with their peers. A disadvantage to the program is as Berns (2016) stated that children are expected to sit quietly and only respond to the teacher. There is no interaction with their peers. A second disadvantage is that this curriculum offers little use of socialization skills, sensory development, and self motivation.
Development Interaction curriculum is also a learner directed program like to the Montessori curriculum. Berns (216) wrote,” It is individualized in relation to each child’s stage of development while providing many opportunities for children to interact and become involved with peers and adults” (p. 191). Advantages are that according to Berns (2016) the classroom has many learning centers to stimulate the child to explore areas they are already familiar with. The advantage to this type of learning is that it also opens the child’s understanding of other academic concepts such as reading and math . I feel that a disadvantage is that without some structure children may not be exposed to certain age appropriate knowledge. Math and science skills may not be focused upon. Also certain language milestones may not be achieved that are needed to compete with others when they reach school age such as the alphabet and sight words.
Topic 3: Caregivers and Child protection.
The maltreatment of children has laws that mandate prompt reporting of any suspected child abuse or neglect. Berns ( 2016) stated that in 1974 the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act law was introduced. This law details what defines maltreatment and gives a list of which professionals are required to report cases. The child’s caregivers or teachers may notice a difference in the child’s appearance, unusual behavior, or the way the child interacts with his peers and should become suspicious. Every caregiver should know what their responsibility is regarding child protection. According to Berns (2016), “ The Child Welfare Information Gateway ( CWIG, 2012) provides information on the following categories: 1. Know your states child abuse/neglect laws. 2. Know who must report abuse and neglect. 3. Know how to report abuse and neglect according to the law “ (p. 410). The information provided in the text book is very important to every caregiver and parent. We must be proactive to be aware of the signs of abuse or neglect, and never brush them off. I must actively be looking for the signs and report them immediately.
Meinke. H. (2019, November 04). exploring the Pros and Cons of Montessori Education. https://www.rasmussen.edu/degrees/education/blog/pros_cons_montessori_education/
Berns, Roberta M. Child, Family, School, Community. 10th ed., Cengage Learning, Inc, 2016.
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