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chapter 6 please respond to meghan with 190 words with 2 citations and reference

Topic 1- Process or Product.

Learning is a response to both instinct and instruction. Every infant has certain instincts within them. The desire to move, like rolling over or crawling, and the desire to explore the environment around them.Learning is a instinct because the child develops a desire to gain knowledge. The act of putting these desires into action require instruction. As small children become aware of their environment they observe their parents, siblings, other children, and media such as television. The child’s instinct to learn kicks in as they start to react to others during play, and socially as they learn to talk and communicate. The child observes their siblings and parents walking on their two feet and through many attempts learn to stand and take steps. Learning is a process and it’s also a product of receiving training and instruction. A small infant does not begin to talk at birth. They learn through communication and repetitiveness of those around them. The same is true in education- a child doesn’t start school knowing how to read, but through instruction they can gain knowledge. The success a child experiences academically requires many levels of support. Epstein & Sheldon, (2016) discussed that when the family and school works together on behalf of the child- that child experiences greater success in life. Parents need to provide a learning environment in the home that is free of distractions, and parents should help their child set realistic goals and expectations. Parental involvement is essential to the family /school success ( as citied in Berns, 2016, p. 228). Learning is instinct, instruction, and the process and product of education all working together to help children obtain success in all aspects of life.

Topic 2- Goals for schooling.

The chart used on page 206- Goals for schooling in the United States is a picture of what the ideal learning environment would provide to America’s students. All parents and students want the best education available and the opportunity to use the skills learned through their lives. Berns (2016) wrote “ The primary purpose of education, from society’s perspective, is the transmission of cultural heritage, the accumulated knowledge, values, beliefs, and customs of the society” (p. 206). The skills that children learn during their school years are vital to their personal success. In middle and upper classes these goals are usually met. The families are able to provide their children the tools needed to succeed. Lower and underclass statuses may not be able to achieve all these goals. Public schools have a large number of students to teacher ratio, less money available per student, and fewer resources available for families. Meeting the needs of lower class families will provide a better learning environment for children. Helping families to discover resources available to them will give parents the ability to become more involved in their children’s education. Berns (2016) wrote that “ When families become involved in their children’s education at school and in the community, then children from low-socioeconomic-status and culturally diverse families are enable to fare comparably to middle-class children” (p. 228). Many resources are available such as the Head-start program. Families need to be involved in the education of their children. Berns (2016) stated that the school and families should be in partnership together in meetings and activities that support learning.

Topic 3- Diversity and Equity.

Teachers and school officials must be aware of the divers groups of students that are attending their schools, and follow proper procedures to ensure that all students have equal opportunities available to them. Every child must have a equal opportunity to attend whatever classes or sports that interest them. Berns (2016) stated “ The opening section of Title IX states: No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance” (p.211). According to Berns (2016) This law applies to all public schools without exception. Any program or service that is offered must be available to all students regardless of gender, race, disability or religious affiliation. School guidance counselors must be aware of all regulations when dealing with students. These laws are beneficial to both males and females in that they are not put into a group and are denied classes or opportunities that might be open to others. Many times students can receive input from other children and adults that may hinder them from trying to achieve their goals. The child should seek guidance from parents, other students, or counselors. No one should feel inadequate or different from their peers. People from all walks of life have different ambitions an example could be a female wanting to be a mechanic which is typically a male role, or a male desiring to be an preschool teacher which is usually a female role. Gender can not be a issue for any person, and they both must be offered the same opportunities to follow their goals.

Reference.

Berns, Roberta M. Child, Family, School, Community. 10th ed., Cengage Learning, Inc, 2016.

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