I’m trying to study for my Philosophy course and I need some help to understand this question.
here are various types of ethical theories that you will be encountering in Chapter Seven–e.g., Utilitarianism, Kantian, Aristotle and Feminist theory. However, a question that has always pressed human kind (it was relevant even in the day of the Greek Sophists) is whether morality is simple relative to a culture/society/person or whether there can be objective criteria for determining right and wrong (see section 7.2). Ethical Absolutism states that one and only one correct morality exists. Ethical relativism denies the existence of a single, universal applicable moral standard. Given this and your understanding of Chapter Seven, answer the following:
Where do you stand on the question of ethical relativism? Do you think human moralities and ethical theories are derived solely from, and thus relative to, a cultural/societal/personal environment? Why or why not?
Notice: If you say “yes” to this question (that morality is relative), then you’ll have to answer the question about whether it is right to tell the Nazis they are wrong about killing 6 million Jews during WWII and, presuming you find this to be wrong, justify why you can condone doing, preventing, or punishing such acts. Also, if you answer “no” to the question on relativity, then what are some of the criteria that objectively apply to all humans, in all places at all times. Be sure to be specific and provide examples to show what you mean, and once again be sure to use the text to support your responses.
Questions to consider: What is Kant’s general stance on ethics? What is the “goodwill” and how is it related to duty and moral action? Furthermore what is the categorical imperative, and its two formulations? What does it mean to act according to the categorical imperative? Discuss some of the examples provided in the section. Also, discuss some of the problems of Kant’s theory. Furthermore be sure to discuss your stance on this theory. For instance, do you agree more with Kant or the utilitarian position when it comes to your ethical decisions? Why or why not?
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